Vol 21, No 7-8 (2021)

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Full Issue

Philosophical sciences

Russian healthcare under the sign of constructivism

Borisova T.V., Izmailov E.P.

Abstract

The article analyzes the influence of the philosophical ideas of constructivism on the formation of the Russian healthcare model. The article substantiates the position that the paradigm of constructivism has led to a change in the classical model of medicine, which presupposes the treatment of the patient, not the disease. As a result, a new concept of health care has been formed, within which the emphasis is on the treatment of the disease, rather than the patient. The authors conclude that this transition has led to a health care crisis in Russia that needs to be reformed. The authors propose concrete and practical steps to get out of this reform.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(7-8):5-11
pages 5-11 views

Types of novelty in the semiotics of creativity

Demina A.I.

Abstract

The purpose of the article is to identify the main types of novelty from the standpoint of the semiotic theory of creativity. The methodological framework of the research is general semiotics, Friedrich Dessauer’s theory of potential space and the transcendentalist scheme of cognition and activity. Creativity is considered as the transformation of the rules of semiosis at the level of sensory perception, reason or mind in receptive (cognitive) or projective (actually creative) activity. The source and condition for the possibility of creativity is the heterogeneous structure of reality, ontological pluralism, fixed in the concept of “three worlds” by K.R. Popper and the “four kingdoms” by Fr. Dessauer. The subject, object and process of activity are singled out as the main environments for the emergence of novelty, in semiotic terminology presented as a shift in pragmatic, semantic and syntactic rules of sensory perception, reason and mind. The identified types of novelty are illustrated with examples from literary science fiction.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(7-8):12-18
pages 12-18 views

Сomparative analysis of second and religious understanding of the essence of technology

Rodionov D.A.

Abstract

This article is devoted to the comparative analysis of secular and religious understanding of the essence of technology. The author shows that secular and religious understanding of the technology essence has not only differences, but also many similarities. S.N. Bulgakov was taken as an apologist for the religious point of view, describing the technique through the Divine Will and Sophia. And as an example of secular perception, the works of P.K. Engelmeier were described, who defended the position of technology as a form of human spiritual activity in the design of matter through the reconstruction of natural resources in accordance with the goals of culture.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(7-8):19-23
pages 19-23 views

The role of general cultural methods in social cognition

Anisimova S.Y.

Abstract

The article expresses the idea that general cultural methods can be used in the analysis of complex social interactions, because the content of these methods includes elements of explanation and understanding. General cultural methods are compared: ignoring, oblivion, destruction, critical processing in the study of historical memory. The content of historical memory stores and conveys the experience of a person’s objective activity and the ways of interaction of complex systems. In the analytical field, the phenomenon of historical memory is present not only within the boundaries of humanitarian knowledge, but also in the problems of interdisciplinary research.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(7-8):24-28
pages 24-28 views

Experience in philosophical self-criticism: between settlement and nomadic nomos

Bolotnikova E.N.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the analysis of philosophical discourse. Based on J. Deleuze’s methodological approach, the author examines the philosophical work in two perspectives: sedentary and nomadic nomos. In the first projection structures, plots, themes are established, in the second, the displacement, shift, significance, playing with meanings happen. In the first projection, philosophers follow the ancient motto “Discover yourself”, in the second – “Take care of yourself”. “Sedentary” and “nomadic” way make conditional on each other. The author shows their interaction in philosophical discourse, referring to the works of Kant, K. Marx and Nietzsche. In the conclusion, it has been established that the existence at the borders turned out to be the key to overcoming the temporal and spatial conditionality of philosophical thought.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(7-8):29-34
pages 29-34 views

Once again about the subject of social knowledge

Borisova T.V.

Abstract

The article deals with the problem of the subject of social cognition; all aspects of existing existence are actualized. Philosophical basis of social cognition theoretical and methodological programs, schemes, as well as their tools. The idea is expressed that the subject is social reality, not society. Various models of social reality are analyzed: active, idealistic, naturalistic and phenomenological. Within the framework of the methodological program of the so-called “new social ontology” (critical realism), there is a revival to the theoretical origins of social metaphysics, with its ideas about the objectivity of the existence of social reality and the analysis of causal connections in social processes. The pluralism of causal explanation takes into account.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(7-8):35-39
pages 35-39 views

Homo psychotherapeuticus, or psychotherapy in the reflection of contemporary philosophy

Zotov A.M.

Abstract

Psychotherapeutic practices are always based on personality theories. The century-old experience of psychotherapy has shown relatively equal effectiveness of various directions. Can philosophical anthropology help in the study of the equivalence paradox? Can specialists in their search step beyond the usual psychotherapeutic discourse in understanding the subject of psychotherapy? The article examines the connection between the “fate of the subject” in the philosophy of the XX century and the issues of personology in psychotherapy. The article is addressed to philosophers, psychologists, educators, those specialists who implement a personalistic approach in their practice.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(7-8):40-48
pages 40-48 views

The dialogue of the viewer and cinema: hermeneutical understanding

Ivanova D.D.

Abstract

The article deals with the dialogue of the viewer and the cinema, in which the cognition of the surrounding world, the social and ontological changes taking place in it, the person’s appeal to himself is carried out. The purpose of the study is to identify the basic principles of this process, its current trends in modern society. The dialogue is analyzed through such categories as understanding, interpretation, and meaning. The study notes two spaces for the implementation of dialogue: society, spectator and cinema, identified their common characteristics. The hermeneutic approach was chosen as a methodology. The author concludes that the modern dialogue between the viewer and the cinema finds its expression through a remake, which is a combination of the actual social, value attitudes of society at a given time and previously “formulated” life guidelines, creates a contrast on the movie screen, which is considered to be a challenge to a person himself yourself and his spiritual world.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(7-8):49-53
pages 49-53 views

Ethical regulation of economic relations: agenda change and values correction

Solovyova S.V.

Abstract

The article deals with the current situation in the field of ethical regulation of economic relations. The author shows that interest in the ethical regulation of the economy increases during the transitional historical periods, which are characterized by a fundamental transformation of all aspects of society’s life, both the formation of capitalism and the formation of Industry 4.0. The idea of replenishing ethical standards in the field of professional labor activity is substantiated on the open data of sociological research, the theoretical separation of market and ethical thinking, the contraction of the sphere of pure ethical regulation (М. Sandel). It is expressed in the transition from the recognition ethics to the trust ethics, the latter goes beyond the boundaries of interpersonal relations, forming a culture of “institutional trust”. Modern practices of ethical codification of companies’ activities are greatly influenced by the problems of the value dimension of digitalization, automation, artificial intelligence, “green economy”, inclusion in the business culture of organizations.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(7-8):54-63
pages 54-63 views

Digital neo-nomadism and the transformation of digital reality

Ustyantsev N.G.

Abstract

The article presents the fundamental concepts of nomadism and cultural identity as ways of understanding the dynamics of the digital world. The nomadic way of life as a theoretical model, referring in general terms to the so-called “wanderers” who suffer from the lack a sense of belonging to the designated area. For the modern nomad, the formation of individual identity is not a priority; the personal traits and inclinations of nomads change according their moving. The author examines the relationship between the concepts of nomadism and cultural identity in a digital context. In light of the accelerating social and geopolitical changes imposed by the attitudes of the modern digital world, the points of view of J. Deleuze, in collaboration with F. Guattari and P. Wilson, are considered in order to reveal the complexity of cultivating a certain cultural identity in the modern digital age.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(7-8):70-74
pages 70-74 views

Characteristics of the civil war

Stepanov I.V.

Abstract

In the modern world the problematic of the civil war remains relevant. The transition of the leading countries to post-industrial capitalism does not exclude the threat of wars of this type. The purpose of the article is to identify the conceptual characteristics of civil wars. The methodological basis of the research is based on L. Wittgenstein’s theory of language games. The first theoretical basis of the study is the definition given by Martin van Creveld: “War does not begin when some kill others; it begins when those who kill have risk to be killed.” The second theoretical basis of the study is the position put forward by Karl von Clausewitz: “War is the continuation of politics by other means”. The study revealed that the civil war should be analyzed in two aspects. In the military-strategic aspect the civil war remains a competitive mutual mass physical violence, using both regular and irregular methods of warfare. Whereas in the political aspect, the civil war should be understood as the competitive construction of the state.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(7-8):64-69
pages 64-69 views

The ontology of individuality of v.a. konev in the context of modern philosophical anthropology

Kostomarov A.S.

Abstract

This article is devoted to an attempt to comprehend the ontology of individuality of V.A. Konev through the prism of the development of modern philosophical anthropology. The study deals with the concept of individuality in the works of V.A. Konev through significant modern philosophical anthropology projects as metaphysics a posteriori by M.K. Mamardashvili, the ethics of desubjectivation by G. Agamben and the transcendental empiricism of G. Deleuze. Individuality is considered to be a potential, forceful, energetic being, generating itself by its own ability to exist, by its unique manner, aimed at revealing and affirming itself in the world. The specificity of individuality consists of the ability to endow existence with being, to participate in the production of meaning. The authors consider the described individuality as a necessary ontological condition of the cultural world, the formation of a social order.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(7-8):75-84
pages 75-84 views

The semantics of flickering in the texts of russian culture: optics and ontics

Malyshev V.B.

Abstract

The article deals with the description of Russian culture reality in various historical projections in the language of cognitive metaphors, in particular the metaphor of flickering. Understanding the paradoxical codes of Russian culture is possible at the level of the semantics of its texts, when single “flickers” make a deeper understanding of the optics and architectonics of the images in question. The Russian cultural texts prove that flickering, as a “measure” of existence, in particular, the measure of illumination, itself carries the ontics and optics of the reversed dimension of being, the dimension of space and time, in which images arise, primarily presented as metaphors of natural forces.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(7-8):85-90
pages 85-90 views

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