Vol 21, No 5-6 (2021)

Cover Page

Full Issue

Pharmacy

Medicines with active pharmaceutical ingredient diosmin: plaining of sample preparation

Voronin A.V., Karpov A.V.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Most drugs in the form of tablets contain diosmin in the micronized flavonoid fraction. This is the reason for the low level recovery by means of solid-liquid extraction.

AIM: to determine optimal conditions for sample preparation of some drugs with active pharmaceutical ingredient diosmin with the use of mathematical experiment planning (Box-Behnken design).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study subjects were tablets Detralex® 1000 mg, Venarus® 900 mg, Detravenol® 1000 mg, Flebaven® 1000 mg, Phlebopha® 600 mg, Phlebodia 600 mg. Estimation of diosmin recovery by the method of solid-liquid extraction was made according to the algorithm of full factorial design with three level factors (Box-Behnken design).

RESULTS: The effect of some factors determining the extraction of diosmin from tablets Detralex® 1000 mg, Venarus® 900 mg, Detravenol® 1000 mg, Flebaven® 1000 mg, Phlebopha® 600 mg, Phlebodia 600 mg was estimated. Mathematical (regression) models of solid-liquid extraction of diosmin for each drug were developed. The most significant factor determining the diosmin recovery from drugs (tablet formulation) is the sodium hydroxide concentration. Other factors (acetonitrile concentration, extraction time, centrifugation time, addition of ammonium sulfate) fail to exert significant effect. The optimal value of sodium hydroxide concentration is 0.02 mol/l. Diosmin recovery doesn’t increase after the increase of the sodium hydroxide concentration above 0.02 mol/l.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):9-15
pages 9-15 views

Preparation of sorbents for solid-phase extraction of salicylic acid from aqueous solutions

Kachalkin M.N., Voronin A.V.

Abstract

Salicylic acid and its derivatives are widely used in medicine and pharmacy as antipyretic, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs for external and internal use. The development of methods for the quantitation of salicylic acid in multicomponent samples using selective methods of sample preparation is an important problem in quality drug control. The aim of the study was to obtain sorbents based on ethyl cellulose for solid-phase extraction of salicylic acid from aqueous solutions. As a result of the study, a method for obtaining a sorbent for solid-phase salicylic acid from aqueous solutions was proposed. The IR spectroscopy of the obtained sorbent samples did not establish significant structural differences between ethylcellulose and the obtained sorbents. Optimal concentrations of ethylcellulose and salicylic acid solutions in the reaction mixture for obtaining the sorbent with a maximum value of sorption capacity of 93.5 µg/g of sorbent were revealed. The method for the quantitation of salicylic acid from aqueous solutions with the use of the obtained sorbent was proposed. Metrological estimation of salicylic acid quantitation with the help of the obtained sorbent for solid-phase extraction was carried out.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):16-22
pages 16-22 views

Standardization of licorice roots: current issues

Belova O.A., Kurkin V.A., Ryazanova T.K.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Medicinal plant raw material “Licorice roots” contains a whole complex of biologically active compounds (triterpene saponins, flavonoids, etc.) and is widely used in medicine as raw materials for the production of anti-inflammatory and expectorant medications. However, despite its widespread use and well-studied chemical composition, the problems in the field of standardization of licorice roots remain urgent. The current pharmacopoeial method for determining the quantitative content of glycyrrhizic acid is multi-stage, it consists in the extraction of nitric acid with the use of 3% acetone solution, the addition of the concentrated ammonia solution to form a precipitate (ammonium salt of glycyrrhizic acid), its filtration and dissolution in water, followed by spectrophotometric determination. There are other methods for determining the content of this biologically active compound. They involve high performance liquid chromatography. No results for quantification of glycyrrhizic acid by this method in isocratic elution mode were found in the available scientific literature.

AIM: The aim is to develop the method for determining the quantitative content of glycyrrhizic acid in licorice roots using high performance liquid chromatography in an isocratic elution mode.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The objects of the study were licorice roots harvested in 2018 in the Botanical Garden of Samara University, commercial samples of plant raw materials, state standard samples of monosubstituted ammonium salt of glycyrrhizic acid (glycyram, PM 42-0034-00) and the work glycyrrhizic acid standard. High performance liquid chromatography analysis was carried out by using a Milichrom-6 chromatograph.

RESULTS: As a result of the investigation, the method for determining the quantitative content of glycyrrhizic acid by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (258 nm) was developed. The mobile phase was acetonitrile: 1% acetic acid solution in water in the ratio of 40:60, the elution rate was 100 μl/min. The optimal extraction conditions were selected: extractant was 40% ethyl alcohol, extraction for 60 minutes at the ratio of “raw material-extractant” was equal to 1:30. Validation analysis showed that the developed methods demonstrated satisfactory metrological indicators.

CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results can be used to update the pharmacopoeial monograph “Licorice roots”.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):30-35
pages 30-35 views

Antioxidant activity of some promising fatty oils: comparative study in vitro

Mubinov A.R., Avdeeva E.V., Kurkin V.A., Latypova G.M., Farkhutdinov R.R., Kataev V.A., Ryazanova T.K.

Abstract

This paper presents the results of the comparative study of the in vitro antioxidant activity of fatty oils obtained by cold-pressing (black cumin, argania prickly, olive oil) which are promising for the use in medical practice. An oil solution of alpha-tocopherol acetate was also used as a comparison. Antioxidant activity was determined by registration of chemiluminescence on the device HLM-003 in systems simulating the production of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. The study revealed the ability of most samples of the investigated fatty oils to inhibit the generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in model systems in vitro which characterized their antioxidant properties in the comparative aspect with the reference preparation. Samples of black cumin fatty oil showed the greatest antioxidant activity. The optimum fatty oil concentrations for each model system (1 mg/ml and 5 mg/ml) were also selected and the dose-dependent effect on the oil concentration in the system was established.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):23-29
pages 23-29 views

Tincture of Juglans nigra L. bark: peculiarities of standardization

Zimenkina N.I., Kurkin V.A.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Juglans nigra L. is a species of trees in the Juglandaceae family. This plant of the genus Juglans L. has not been sufficiently studied in comparison with other species, including Juglans regia L. It is a perspective medicinal plant raw material, its derivatives have an antimicrobial, general tonic effect. The known antimicrobial and general tonic activity of Juglans L preparations presented on the pharmaceutical market is probably due to substances of a flavonoid nature. These data indicate the relevance of studying the flavonoids of the Juglans nigra L. bark.

AIM: The aim of this study is to develop methods for qualitative analysis and quantitative determination of biologically active compounds for tincture of Juglans nigra L. bark with the using of spectrophotometry, thin layer chromatography, microcolumn high performance liquid chromatography.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The object of the study was the tincture of Juglans nigra L. bark, samples of which were prepared in March-April 2020 on the territory of the Botanical Garden of Samara University, standard samples of myricitrin, myricetin. UV spectra were recorded with the use of Specord 40 spectrophotometer (Analytik Jena). Chromatographic analysis was carried out by thin-layer chromatography (qualitative analysis), reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography on a Milikhrom-6 microcolumn liquid chromatograph (quantitative analysis).

RESULTS: As a result of the chromatographic study, myricitrin were revealed, it appeared to be the dominant flavonoid substance. This compound has Rf value of about 0.4 in the solvent system of chloroform-ethanol-water (25:18:2). A method for the quantitative determination of the total flavonoids calculated on myricitrin in tincture of Juglans nigra L. bark was developed by means of differential spectrophotometry. It was determined that the content of the total flavonoids calculated on myricitrin in the tincture of Juglans nigra L. bark was 0.84 ± 0.07%. A method for the quantitative determination of myricitrin in tincture of Juglans nigra L. bark by high performance liquid chromatography was developed. The content of the dominant flavonoid as myricitrin (myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside) in the tincture of Juglans nigra L. bark was 0.42 ± 0.06%.

CONCLUSIONS: The methods of qualitative analysis and quantitative determination of flavonoids for tincture of Juglans nigra L. bark with the use of modern instrumental methods of analysis (spectrophotometry, thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography) has been developed. These results can be used to standardize the tincture of Juglans nigra L. bark.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):36-47
pages 36-47 views

Study of the antimicrobial activity of the bark extracts of Quercus robur L.

Ryabov N.A., Ryzhov V.M., Kurkin V.A., Kolpakova S.D., Zhestkov A.V., Lyamin A.V.

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to carry out comparative analysis of the antimicrobial activity of water-ethanolic and chloroform extractions from the bark of Quercus robur L.

The determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration was carried out by the method of double serial dilutions in Mueller-Hinton nutrient broth (Bio-Rad, USA). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans were used as test cultures.

It was revealed that the greatest antimicrobial effect was exhibited by water-ethanolic extractions from Q. robur L. bark in ethanol concentrations of 60%, 70% and 96% ethanol in relation to strains of microorganisms P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. The lowest antimicrobial activity against strains of microorganisms E. coli and S. aureus was observed in 40% of water-ethanolic extractions. Chloroform extracts of Q. robur L. bark has a pronounced antimicrobial activity against C. albicans and P. aeruginosa strains. It is proposed to use 60% ethanol as the optimal concentration of ethanol for the bark of Q. robur L., since at the given concentration of ethanol, the maximum antimicrobial effect is observed, and the balance between the release of tannins and flavonoids into the dosage form also preserves.

This study contributes to solving the issue of recycling wood waste of Q. robur L. and their rational use in pharmaceutical practice.

The obtained results can be used in the future to create antimicrobial drugs based on the bark of Q. robur L.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):48-57
pages 48-57 views

Quality indicators of hymatomelanic acids preparation as a potential anti-rheumatoid agent

Avvakumova N.P., Katunina E.E., Krivopalova M.A., Zhdanova A.V., Glubokova M.N., Kachalkin M.N.

Abstract

The article studies the influence of hymatomelanic acids, one of the fractions of humic substances of peloids, on the course of rheumatoid arthritis. This substance was standardized by using physicochemical analysis. The elemental composition of the substance as well as a number of spectral (IR, NMR) characteristics were revealed. The list of components formed as a result of hydrolysis of the initial preparation and their relative content was determined. Fatty acids and their derivatives are the predominant constituents of peloid hymatomelanic acid hydrolyzate. The tissues of immunocompetent organs including regional lymph nodes, spleen, and also rat liver were studied. For the experiment, a model of adjuvant arthritis was selected and four groups of animals were formed. They were withdrawn from the experiment on the 17, 21 and 26 day. The histological picture indicated that when modeling rheumatoid arthritis, such pathological changes in the immunocompetent organs of rats as edema of the parenchyma and stroma, sclerosis, thickening of the walls of blood vessels, develop during the whole period of observation. A list of descriptors of the studied drug was obtained and it was found that the use of peloid himatomelanic acids in the model of adjuvant arthritis had a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect, as evidenced by the normalization of the morphofunctional state of the spleen, regional lymph nodes and liver.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):65-72
pages 65-72 views

Phytochemical study of leaves of the genus Syringa L. species

Serebryakova A.D., Kurkin V.A., Agapov A.I.

Abstract

The work is devoted to the phytochemical study of the leaves of various species of the genus Syringa. They are promising sources of raw material containing flavonoids. The leaves of S. vulgaris, S. josikaea, S. amurensis, S. microphylla, S. villosa and S. sweginzovii were selected for the experiment. Rutin was found in the studied extracts of lilac leaves. The bathochromic shift of the long-wave band in the UV spectra of the solutions of the studied extracts indicates the presence of flavonoids. Under the conditions of differential spectrophotometry, the maximal absorption was detected at the range of 406-412 nm of plant raw material. The total flavonoids at the wavelength of 412 nm calculated on rutin in all the studied samples varies from 1.43% to 2.92%.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):58-64
pages 58-64 views

Determination of infrared thermogravimetric moisture (loss on drying) for different morphological group of medicinal plant raw materials: development the techniques

Zhdanov D.A., Braslavskii V.B., Kurkin V.A.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the development of new moisture (loss on drying) determination techniques by infrared thermogravimetric method. This method is aimed at 23 pharmacopeial types of air-dry medicinal plant raw materials of 7 morphological groups (roots, bark, leaves, fruits, seeds, herbs, flowers). These techniques can be included into the State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation. The obtained results allow to develop the project proposals concerning the changes and the supplementation of the State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation monographs.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):73-77
pages 73-77 views

The current issues of standardization of Aloe arborescens Mill. leaves

Ryazanova T.K., Kurkin V.A., Shmygareva A.A., Glushchenko S.N., Agapov A.I.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Aloe arborescens Mill. leaves contain a whole complex of biologically active compounds (derivatives of anthraquinone, anthrone, pyrone, biopolymers, etc.) and are widely used in medical practice as raw materials for the production of anti-inflammatory, wound healing agents. The presence of anthracene derivatives in the leaves determines the laxative activity of raw plant materials and preparations. It emphasizes the importance of Aloe arborescens preparations for internal use in inflammatory diseases accompanied by constipation and decrease in secretory activity. Another biologically active compound with which the anti-inflammatory activity of aloe leaves may be associated with a pyrone derivative aloenin. At the same time, despite the widespread use in medicine and a well-studied chemical composition, the problems in the field of standardization of raw materials and preparations of Aloe arborescens are still urgent. The methods for determining the quantitative content of anthracene derivatives described in the literature are multistage, they provide for preliminary acid hydrolysis in combination with oxidation, liquid-liquid extraction of the formed aglycones and complexation with magnesium acetate. The approved regulatory documents for aloe raw materials and preparations does not provide for the assay of aloenin

AIM: The aim is to develop the methods for determining the quantitative content of biologically active compounds in the raw materials and preparations of fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens by using the spectrophotometric method and the high-performance liquid chromatography method.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The objects of research were fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill., and juice obtained ex tempore from fresh leaves of aloe. Samples of raw materials were collected in the summer and autumn of 2020 in the Winter Garden of the Department of Pharmacognosy with Botany and Bases of Phytotherapy at Samara State Medical University. Individual substances were isolated by column chromatography. In the study, the Bruker DRX 500 instrument (126.76 MHz) was used to determine 13C NMR spectra, and the Bruker AM 300 instrument (300 MHz) was used to determine 1H NMR spectra. Mass spectra were recorded on mass spectrometer Kratos MS-30, UV spectra were recorded by means of the spectrophotometer Specord 40 (Analytik Jena). High-performance liquid chromatography analysis was carried out with the use of the chromatograph Milichrom-6 (Nauchpribor, Russia).

RESULTS: As a result of the study, aloenin and a mixture of aloins A and B (barbaloin) were isolated from the leaves of Aloe arborescens by with the use of column chromatography. The method for the determination of the quantitative content of aloenin by microcolumn reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (306 nm) was developed, the mobile phase was acetonitrile: 1% acetic acid solution in water in the ratio of 25:75, the elution rate is 100 μL / min. The method for the quantitative determination of the total amount of anthracene derivatives in Aloe arborescens fresh leaves (differential spectrophotometry with an alkaline-ammonia solution at 412 nm) was developed. The optimal conditions for the extraction were selected. They are extractant of 40% ethyl alcohol, extraction within 60 minutes at the ratio of “raw material – extractant” is 1:50. Validation analysis has shown that the developed methods are characterized by satisfactory metrological indicators.

CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results can be used to update the pharmacopoeial monograph “Aloe arborescens leaves fresh”.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):78-86
pages 78-86 views

Method optimization for obtaining of “Hawthorn fruit tincture”

Volkova N.A., Kurkin V.A., Pravdivtseva O.E., Shaikhutdinov I.K., Pervushkin S.V., Ber O.V.

Abstract

The fruits of various species of the genus Crataegus L. contain flavonoids and are widely used in domestic and foreign medicine for the production of cardiotonic drugs. Crataegus submollis Sarg. is grown in our country as the edible and ornamental plant, but it is not currently used in medicine. Fruit juice of Crataegus submollis Sarg. exerts diuretic effect and an antidepressant activity. Dried fruit pulp can be used to produce extraction preparations. The aim of the work is to compare and analyze the samples of tinctures obtained from the fruits of the Crataegus submollis Sarg. and the pulp of its fruits. Tinctures based on 70% ethyl alcohol were obtained on the basis of dried fruits of Crataegus submollis Sarg. and the pulp of its fruits. The quality of the obtained tinctures was studied by determining of the total amount of flavonoids. Tinctures made of dried pulp of Crataegus submollis Sarg. fruits are as good as industrial samples of preparations in terms of flavonoid content. The fruits of the Crataegus submollis Sarg. and the pulp of its fruits can serve as medicinal plant raw materials for obtaining tinctures.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):87-91
pages 87-91 views

The pharmacognostic study of some species of the genus poplar (Populus L.) growing in the Samara Region

Urbanchik E.A., Kurkin V.A., Agapov A.I.

Abstract

About 30 species of poplar (Populus L.) grow on the territory of the Russian Federation, however only five of them are pharmacopoeial. The buds of pharmacopoeial poplar species are used as medicinal plant raw materials. The chemical composition of the buds is quite diverse, the leading group is flavonoids (about 30%). The flavanones like pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) and pinocembrin (5,7-dihydroxyflavanone) are diagnostically significant for the representatives of the genus Populus. Along with pharmacopoeia species, poplar hybrids are promising for study and further use, they have a number of advantages. One of such promising species is Populus rubrinervis Hort. Alb. The composition of the buds of Populus rubrinervis hasn’t been studied yet. As a result of the conducted studies, we found phenolic compounds, presumably flavonoids, in the composition of both the buds of Populus rubrinervis and pharmacopoeia species with the use of thin-layer chromatography and spectrophotometry.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):92-97
pages 92-97 views

Fruits of meadowsweet [Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.] and dropwort (Filipendula hexapetala Gilib.): comparative morphogical and anatomical investigation

Sazanova K.N., Sharipova S.K.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Meadowsweet [Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.], is the representative of flora of the European parts of Russia. It is widespread in Samara Region. The flowers of the meadowsweet are the pharmacopoeial type of raw materials, but the fruits of this plant are not used in medicine. The fruits of the meadowsweet and its closely related type of the dropwort are the promising source of biologically active compounds of phenolic and sterol nature. Introduction of new types of medical plant raw materials into official medical practice requires the development of regulatory documentation, including morphological and anatomical diagnostics of types.

AIM: The purpose of this work was to study and compare morphological and anatomical features of the structure of meadowsweet fruits and dropwort.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The material of the study was the dry fruits of the meadowsweet and dropwort, collected in June-July 2019 in Samara Region. The research was carried out by means of light microscopy in transmitted and reflected light in a light field.

RESULTS: Morphological and anatomical characteristics of the fruits of two types of meadowsweet were revealed. They hadn’t been described in the literature before. So the fruits of the meadowsweet have the following diagnostic features: the stele of the pedicels is of transitional type, lysigenic receptacles located in them are uneven, pubescence of the epidermis occurs due to simple unicellular trichomes; they also have the three-layer structure of the pericarp, a significant quantity of single crystals in the parenchyma of the parmelia, the cone-shaped form of the conducting bundle in the parmelia seam. The fruits of the dropwort are characterised by retort-shaped hairs that make up the thick pubescence of the multiple fruits, peculiar conducting system of the parmelia in the form of one large collateral bundle of the cone-shaped form, located on the side of the seam.

CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results allow to develop the chapter “Microscopic signs” as a part of the pharmacopoeial monograph devoted to a new perspective medicinal plant raw materials of “Fruits of the meadowsweet” and “Fruits of the dropwort”.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):98-104
pages 98-104 views

Current issues of standardization of spreading marigold flowers

Saveleva A.E., Kurkina A.V.

Abstract

The spreading marigold (Tagetes patula L.) is a prospective source of flavonoids. The aim of the study is to develop methods of standardization of spreading marigold flowers, consisting in determining the identity of this raw material and the quantitative determination of biologically active compounds. As a result of a comparative chromatographic study, the presence of flavonoids was revealed at the wavelength of 254 and 366 nm before and after the reaction with the alcohol solution of aluminum chloride. The method of determination of patulitrin and patuletin in the spreading marigold flowers (Tagetes patula L.) with the use of high performance liquid chromatography was developed. The content of dominant flavonoid patulitrin in the flowers of T. patula varies from 5.11 ± 0.18% to 5.64 ± 0.17%. The error of single determination of patulitrin in the spreading marigold flowers with confidence probability of 95% is ±3.32%.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):105-111
pages 105-111 views

Current aspects of standardization of Spirulina platensis biomass

Kosenko A.A., Pervushkin S.V., Zhelonkin N.N., Kurkina A.V.

Abstract

The food spirulina [Spirulina platensis (Nordst.) Geitl.] is a blue-green multicellular filamentous microscopic alga widely cultivated in many countries of the world, including the Russian Federation. The aim of this study is to develop approaches to the standardization of biomass of Spirulina platensis. As a result of the conducted research, approaches to the standardization of biomass of Spirulina platensis have been developed. It is aimed to determine the content of β-carotene, phycocyanin and proteins by using TLC and spectrophotometry. It was determined that the content of β-carotene in the samples of biomass of Spirulina platensis calculated on absolutely dry raw material varies from 63.0 mg% to 94.0 mg%, phycocyanin from 3.50% to 4.30% and protein from 53.50% to 61.09%. It was established that β-carotene, C-phycocyanin and protein were the most important diagnostically significant biologically active compounds of the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The analytical aspects of the study of Spirulina platensis biomass considered in this paper are the scientific basis for the substantiation of the creation of pharmaceuticals based on it.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):112-117
pages 112-117 views

Humin-containing dosage form: technology, application prospects

Glubokova M.N., Avvakumova N.P., Zhdanova A.V., Krivopalova M.A., Katunina E.E.

Abstract

This article is devoted to the development of technology and methods for assessing the quality of suppositories containing humic acids of low-mineralized silt sulfide mud. The quality standards of the studied medicinal product were established and its stability during storage was determined. The quantitative determination of humic acids in aqueous solutions was determined by the spectrophotometric method.

When studying the technological indicators of the suppositories, the following indicators were taken into account: description, average weight, melting temperature and time of complete deformation.

The results of visual control showed that the appearance of the suppositories did not change during one year of storage. However, some white plaque and color heterogeneity appeared with the increase of the shelf life up to 1.5 years. The amount of the active substance during the storage of suppositories changed slightly and did not exceed the permissible content standards. The melting point value did not exceed 36 °C, and its decrease was not observed. The time of complete deformation of the suppositories did not exceed 15 minutes and was 5-6 minutes during storage. The average weight of suppositories during storage remained stable. The study allows to conclude that the proposed suppositories are stable for 12 months and the preliminary shelf life of suppositories is 1 year.

The conducted chemical and pharmaceutical studies scientifically substantiate the expediency of using medicines with humic acids that demonstrate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This will expand the range of domestic medicines with the given spectrum of therapeutic action.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):118-126
pages 118-126 views

Effect of Thymus marschallianus extract on lipid peroxidation processes in vivo and in vitro experiments

Sheremetyeva A.S., Durnova N.A., Chernysheva Y.G.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Currently, fundamental and experimental data confirming the role of free radicals in physiological and pathological processes have been accumulated. The literature describes conflicting information about the effect of antioxidants on the organism: they are able to protect not only normal cells from the alterative effect of free radicals, but also tumor cells, thereby supporting the survival and growth of the latter. Therefore, the study of the effect of Thymus marchallianus extract on the processes of lipoperoxidation in vivo against the background of the tumor process is relevant.

AIM: To study the effect of Thymus marchallianus extract on the quantity of lipid peroxidation intermediates in the blood plasma of mongrel white rats with liver cancer PC-1 and compare with in vivo antioxidant activity.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The object of research was the dried Thymus marchallianus grass. Water and alcohol extracts were used in the experiment. Fifteen male white mongrel rats with a tumor were included in the experiment: the first group was intact, the second group received the water extract of Thymus marchallianus, and the third group received the alcohol extract of Thymus marchallianus. The activity of lipoperoxidation processes was evaluated, the content of intermediate lipid peroxidation intermediates – malon dialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and medium-mass molecules in the blood plasma of experimental rats were estimated by means of conventional spectrophotometric methods. Determination of the antioxidant activity of the infusion and alcohol extraction in the in vitro experiment was carried out by the titrimetric method.

RESULTS: In the control groups and the group of animals that received intraperitoneal water and alcohol extracts of Thymus marchallianus, increase in the intermediate products of lipid peroxidation was not revealed. The amount of malon dialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and medium-mass molecules in the blood plasma of experimental rats did not differ significantly from the level of similar indicators of intact animals. In the in vitro experiment, water and alcohol extracts from raw Thymus marchallianus showed antioxidant activity.

CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, the experiment was conducted to study the effect of water and water-alcohol extracts of Thymus marchallianus on lipoperoxidation processes in mongrel white rats with alveolar liver cancer PC-1. The activity of formation of intermediate products of lipid peroxidation did not change, since their content in the blood plasma of experimental animals did not differ from the level of similar indicators of intact animals. In vitro the infusion and alcohol extract demonstrated antioxidant activity.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):127-131
pages 127-131 views

Current issues of the pharmacognostic study Monarda fistulosa L. herb

Tsibina A.S., Kurkin V.A.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The Monarda fistulosa L. is successfully cultivated in Russia. The herbs of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus serpyllum and Origanum vulgare are used as agents with antimicrobial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory effects, it is due to the presence of thymol and carvacrol in the raw material. However Monarda fistulosa is not inferior to the listed plants.

AIM: The aim is to study the chemical composition, to identify significant morphological, anatomical and chemical signs of raw materials for diagnostics, as well as to develop methods to standardize the herb of Monarda fistulosa in accordance with the modern requirements of pharmaceutical analysis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The herb of Monarda fistulosa was harvested during the period of mass flowering in the Botanical Garden of Samara University in 2016-2019. Morphological and anatomical examination was carried out by the method of light microscopy in transmitted and reflected light. Luminescence microscopy was carried out on a luminescence microscope Altami LUM 2. Individual substances were isolated by column chromatography. The 13C NMR spectra was evaluated by means of the instrument Bruker DRX 500, and Bruker AM 300 was used to record 1H NMR spectra. Mass spectra were recorded on mass spectrometer Kratos MS-30; UV spectra were recorded using a Specord 40 spectrophotometer (Analytik Jena).

RESULTS: This paper discusses the results of research in the field of standardization of raw materials for Monarda fistulosa. As a result of the experimental work, characteristic anatomical and morphological features of the plant were determined. For the first time, the dominant flavonoids like isoroifolin, linarin, and other flavonoids like didimine, acacetin, apigenin were isolated from the herb of the studied raw material. The authors isolated a new natural compound 5-O-rutinoside apigenin from the herb of Monarda fistulosa. Methods for the qualitative analysis of the herb Monarda fistulosa have been developed using thin-layer chromatography (in the presence of thymol and rutin) and spectrophotometry (absorption maxima at a wavelength of 270 ± 2 and 330 ± 2 nm). A method has been developed for the quantitative determination of the total flavonoid content in the herb Monarda fistulosa L. using differential spectrophotometry at the analytical wavelength of 394 nm.

CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results were used in the drafting of the pharmacopoeial monograph for the new type of raw material “Monarda fistulosa L. herb”.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):132-140
pages 132-140 views

Standardization of pectoral species no. 2: current state and prospects

Chevidaev V.V., Bokov D.O., Samylina I.A.

Abstract

Nowadays, diseases of the respiratory system are a common problem for national and global healthcare. The drugs of synthetic and natural origin, intended for the prevention and treatment of these diseases, are available on the pharmaceutical market. The latter are mainly represented by herbal medicinal products, among which mixture herbal products occupy a special place. Pectoral species No. 2 is a multicomponent herbal medicinal products used for diseases of the upper respiratory tract, it includes coltsfoot leaves (40%), plantain leaves (30%), and licorice roots (30%). It is produced in the form of powder and is dispensed in packs and filter sachet. On the basis of information and analytical research, some approaches to the standardization of pectoral species No. 2 are developed in this study. Currently, the infusion is the main dosage form of pectoral species No. 2; water-soluble biologically active compounds are fully extracted by water and are responsible for the manifested pharmacological effects of pectoral species No. 2 (polysaccharides and triterpene compounds). The development of modern regulatory documentation for complex herbal preparations (mixture herbal products) should be carried out taking into account scientifically based data and harmonized requirements. Additional experimental studies are required to substantiate the indicators and standards of identity and good quality of pectoral species No. 2. Modern regulatory documentation for pharmaceutical substances of plant origin and mixture herbal products made of them (including pectoral species No. 2) should include sections that take into account the principle of “raw material-to-drug standardization” and methods that can be used in research laboratories with various material and technical support.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):141-149
pages 141-149 views

Features of drug utilization for the treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases: retail sector of the pharmaceutical market

Blinkova P.R., Petrukhina I.K., Lebedev P.A., Ryazanova T.K.

Abstract

The article studies the main features of drug utilization, prescribed for the treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases, in the retail sector of the pharmaceutical market of the Samara region over the period of 2015-2020. It was found that in the retail sale, the ratio of single-component medicines prescribed for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases was 82.6%, the ratio of fixed combinations was 17.4%. Through 2015-2020 the maximum consumption (the number of sold packages) affected ACE inhibitors (24.6%) and β-blockers (24.1%), while the ratio of these two groups together accounted for about 50% of sales volume (in packages) of the analyzed nomenclature of medications used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The absolute leaders in terms of the number of sold packages in 2020 turned out to be drugs with international non-proprietary names: bisoprolol, enalapril, indapamide, amlodipine, moxonidine. In the retail sector of pharmacies, in the group of fixed-dose combinations ACE inhibitor + diuretic (34.4%) and Angiotensin II receptor blocker + diuretic (35.0%) appeared to be the most demanded combinations. The fixed combinations ACE inhibitor + calcium channel blocker, angiotensin II receptor blocker + calcium channel blocker and β-blocker + diuretic accounted for 4.4%, 6.6% and 15.7% of sales volumes respectively. In the overall sales of the subgroup of fixed-dose combinations of medications used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the share of multicomponent fixed-dose combinations failed to exceed 3%. The demand of the population for these drugs is negligible, it is not more than 1%. The rating indices of the most demanded medications used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease in the retail sector of the pharmaceutical market have been made. Having calculated the average consumption of medications in the treatment of cardiovascular disease in terms of one pharmacy, we have revealed the tendency of changes in consumer preferences when choosing medications.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):150-160
pages 150-160 views

Analysis of drugs assortment and their consumption in older age patients diagnosed with COVID-19

Gladunova E.P., Shirobokov Y.E., Borodulina E.A.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: To identify the features of coronavirus infection (COVID-19) treatment in older working age individuals the analysis of the drugs assortment and treatment schemes used in COVID hospitals in Samara was carried out.

AIM: The purpose of the research was to study the drugs used to treat senior patients in the hospitals of Samara Region, to identify the main drugs, to form a range of medical preparations and to predict the volume of their consumption.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study carried out a retrospective analysis of 218 cases of patients with coronavirus infection treated in Samara medical institutions from May till July 2020.

RESULTS: The main symptoms, comorbidities, the average duration of symptom manifestation prior to admission in both groups of patients, as well as the essential drugs used to treat the infection have been identified.

CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of the studied drugs used for the treatment of coronavirus infections should form the basis for the formation of an optimal range of drugs, forecasting the need for drugs in the light of scientifical pharmacoeconomic approaches.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):161-166
pages 161-166 views

Provision of medical organizations with pharmaceutical products: approaches for the improvement

Paigin F.R., Gladunova E.P.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the development of organizational approaches to improve the system of supplying medical organizations with pharmacy products. It should be based on detailed analysis of external and internal environmental factors. The use of TEMPLES+IM analysis has been proposed to assess the influence of environmental factors. In order to establish the strong and pain points of the system of supplying medical organizations with pharmaceutical products, the use of SWOT analysis has been proposed, supplemented by the assessment of the accuracy of the expert assessment. The proposed approaches can form the basis for the development of organizational and economic models for improving the provision of health-care facilities.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):167-176
pages 167-176 views

Overview of clinical trials of drugs for the treatment of patients with new coronavirus infection (COVID-19)

Shirobokov Y.E., Gladunova E.P., Borodulina E.A.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The new coronavirus infection (SARS-CoV-2), better known as COVID-19, quickly evolved into a worldwide pandemic with a significant public health burden. Currently, there are no approved drugs or preventive therapeutic strategies to combat infection. However, there are hundreds of clinical studies around the world to discover effective treatments for COVID-19.

AIM: The purpose of the research is to conduct a content analysis of the published clinical trials devoted to the treatment of COVID-19, as well as to the synthesis of clinical experience in order to gain insight into potentially effective drugs.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical results published in PubMed, Medline, eLIBRARY, Cochrane Library.

RESULTS: The review summarized the results of clinical studies of potential therapeutic drugs used in COVID-19 therapy.

CONCLUSIONS: By the 15 of August 2021 no medications had been registered to treat the infection.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):177-190
pages 177-190 views

Clinical Medicine

Gene expression of the congenital immunity in tissues of the placenta and fetal membranes in full-term pregnancy

Kaganova M.A.

Abstract

AIM: To assess the level of expression of TLR2, TLR4, TLR7 genes in the placenta and fetal membranes during full-term physiological pregnancy, without signs of onset of labor.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out at the premises of City Clinical Hospital No. 1 named after N.I. Pirogov (Samara), and included 15 pregnant women at 37-41 weeks of gestation without somatic pathology, exacerbation of chronic and acute inflammatory diseases, obstetric complications (placental insufficiency, preeclampsia). All patients were delivered by elective caesarean section due to fetal malposition. The level of expression of TLR2, TLR4, TLR7 genes was determined by reverse transcription and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) on the basis of the laboratory of “NPO DNA-Technology” using a set of reagents “Proba NK”.

RESULTS: The data on the features of TLR2, TLR4, TLR7 expression in the placenta and membranes during full-term pregnancy were obtained. Direct correlations were found between the production of TLR2, TLR4, TLR7 of the fetal membranes and TLR2 of the placenta. The expression of placental TLR4 and TLR7 was not associated with the production of the TLRs. Significant differences were revealed in pregnant women with inflammatory and involutive-dystrophic changes in the placenta and the level of TLR4 expression.

CONCLUSIONS: The expression of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the tissues of the fetoplacental complex occurs uniformly during physiological pregnancy. There are positive correlations between the expression of TLR2, TLR4, TLR7 of the fetal membranes and TLR2 of the placenta, as well as its mass. The most significant indicator of the inflammatory process is the placental expression of TLR4.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):191-199
pages 191-199 views

Acute myocardial infarction in a pregnant woman with congenital thrombophilia

Rybas A.V., Danilova E.N., Pavlova I.B.

Abstract

A clinical case of acute myocardial infarction in a pregnant woman with congenital thrombophilia is presented. Acute myocardial infarction is more likely to develop in the third trimester, in women older than 30 years with classic risk factors: smoking, hyperlipidemia, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus. The risk of acute myocardial infarction in pregnant women increases significantly against the background of thrombophilia. Thrombophilia is a hereditary or acquired predisposition to thrombosis. Acute myocardial infarction is a rare complication of pregnancy and is associated with high mortality. The development of thrombosis in a particular case is based on congenital (hereditary, familial) thrombophilia, which includes polymorphism of genes responsible for various parts of hemostasis – plasma, platelet in combination with pregnancy, which implies a state of hypercoagulation.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):200-204
pages 200-204 views

Diagnostics of the morphological and functional state of temporomandibular joint in children with distal occlusion

Andriyanov D.A.

Abstract

Nowadays it is important to improve the techniques to diagnose malocclusion class II which is very common in children. 24 patients with various maxillofacial anomalies were examined. The developed diagnostic tactics in children with various maxillofacial anomalies involves a set of sequential studies: teleroentgenography, cone-beam computed tomography, ultrasound, kinesiography and electromyography. The obtained results allow assessing the morphological and functional state of the temporomandibular joint in children with distal malocclusion.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(5-6):205-214
pages 205-214 views

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